Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without Vitamin D Deficiency
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world and is accompanied with many complications such as periodontal disorders as the most common complications of diabetes in the mouth. It is estimated that 1 million people worldwide are suffering from varying degrees of vitamin D deficiency, and some studies have linked it with periodontitis and diabetes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between periodontal disease in type 2 Diabetic patients and vitamin D deficiency in Iranian population.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 74 Iranian patients admitted to Baqiyatallah hospital during the years 2017-2019. The type II diabetic patients were selected and non-volunteers patients and those who did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Then, Necessary tests were evaluated in all patients. Patients were divided into two groups of with and without vitamin D deficiency. A questionnaire for periodontal disorders was completed by two different blinded periodontists. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS-21 software using Chi-square and T-test.
Results: 44 males and 30 females were studied. 37 patients had vitamin D levels below 30 ng/ml. 83.8% of the patients had periodontal disorders. The frequency of periodontitis was higher in diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency than in diabetic patients with normal levels of vitamin D. Periodontal disorders were also significantly correlated with duration of diabetes, age of patients and HbA1c.
Conclusion: Periodontal disorder is more prevalent in patients with inadequate vitamin D serum levels. Screening for diabetic patients seems to be necessary both in terms of diagnosis of periodontitis and vitamin D deficiency.
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