Effect of Vitamin K2 as A Stimulants of Bone Regeneration in Osteoporosis Therapy
Introduction: Osteoporosis stems from misbalance between bone forming and bone resorption, which lead to increased risks of bone fractures. In recent years, stem cell therapy introduced as a promising strategy for bone regeneration in osteoporosis due to their bone regeneration potential. However, stem cells require different stimulator to accelerate bone regeneration and repair processes. Previous Studies showed that Vitamin K2, as an osteoprotective factor, promote and inhibit proliferation and activity osteoblast and osteoclasts cell line, respectively. We aimed to elucidate effect vitamin K2 on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) proliferation and their differentiation into osteoblast, and evaluation effect of this vitamin on the process of differentiating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) into osteoclast and the activity of these cells.
Material and Methods: DPSCs and PBMNCs were used for induction towards the osteoblast and osteoclasts, respectively in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K2. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Osteogenesis assayed by alizarin red S staining and osteogenic gene expression as well as osteoclastogenesis by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, Annexin V/PI assay, pit formation and NF-κB gene expression.
Results: Our data showed that vitamin K2 at a concentration of 10µM increased both proliferation and osteogenesis activities of DPSCs and also increased the incidence of apoptosis in TRAP-positive cells as well as decrees in an expression of NF-κB and pit formation.
Conclusion: These results suggest that simultaneous use of vitamin K2 and DPSCs can be a purpose of stem cell therapy in osteoporosis and conducting further pre-clinical studies.
A signature of author below certifies compliance with the following statements:
Copyright transfer; in signing this Agreement:
1. I hereby warrant that this article is an original work, has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere in its final form either in printed or electronic form;
2. I hereby warrant that you have obtained permission from the copyright holder to reproduce in the Article (in all media including print and electronic form) material not owned by you, and that you have acknowledged the source;
3. I hereby warrant that this article contains no violation of any existing copyright, moral rights or other third party right or any material of an obscene, indecent, defamatory or otherwise unlawful nature and that to the best of your knowledge this Article does not infringe the rights of others;
4. I hereby warrant that in the case of a multi-authored Article you have obtained, in writing, authorization to enter into this Agreement on their behalf and that all co-authors have read and agreed the terms of this agreement;
5. I warrant that any formula or dosage given is accurate and will not if properly followed injure any person;
6. I have made a significant scientific contribution to the study and I have read the complete manuscript and take responsibility for the content and completeness of the final surmised manuscript;
7. I will indemnify and keep indemnified the Editors, the Regeneration, Reconstruction and Restoration journal's editor against all claims and expenses (including legal costs and expenses) arising from any breach of this warranty and the other warranties on your behalf in this Agreement.
Conflict of interest disclosure
All institutional or corporeal affixations of mine and all funding sources for the study are acknowledged. I certify that I have no commercial association that might represent a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted manuscript.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.